COVID 19: TRY OXYGEN AMERICA – Chidi Osuagwu

COVID-19: TRY OXYGEN AMERICA!

 Great American Science Highlights Oxygen Road Away from Covid-19*

Chidi G Osuagwu, PhD

African Center for Biomedical Engineering Research

c/o Federal University of Technology, Owerri

Imo State, Nigeria

chigidos@yahoo.com

PROLOGUE

“Ekwensu wu amaghihe; Amaghihe wu oria; Oria wu onwu!”

“Devil is Ignorance; Ignorance is Disease; Disease is Death!”

…Ancient African Wisdom…

INTRODUCTION

            One surmises that the chaotic Covid-19 dynamics in the United States is a sad source of covid-embarrassment to, otherwise, mostly conscientious and proud Americans. It is also a source of covid-confusion to the rest of the world that, usually, looks up to America for leadership in contemporary issues of grand science and great technology solutions.

Educated in great American science tradition, one finds it difficult to understand American confoundment in spite of the significand coronavirus and Covid-19 data before them. But, science is a way of thought and action anchored on Natural Facts. American science seems infected by a paradigm of outsiders’ mirror-image facts; ‘alternative facts’. But images; shadows, are not reality!

For one to read, in 2020, that “In American laboratories and universities, the spirit of Trofim Lysenko has suddenly been woke” is unfortunate and saddening (https://members.aaas.org/communities/community-home/digestviewer/viewthread?) The implicit counter-scientific thought-way seems to be powering the surreal covid-pandemonium in America. The pseudoscientist Lysenko’s politics-corrupted biological theory (1940s-1960s) caused disastrous famine in the Soviet Union. Science is anchored on manifest Nature…demonstrable knowledge or it is no science at all.

From the great science America taught (BSc, Biology; MSc, Chemistry; doctoral fellow, Medicinal Chemistry and later PhD, Medical Biochemistry), fair minded people would asses that one should be quite capable of following, as one has diligently tried to follow, the worldwide discourse on Covid-19. One has listened to the debates, and controversies, about its nature and management strategies. So, in this age of ‘alternative truths’, fair-minded people would hear one out. That is concede that one should, reasonably with the kind of background, know what he thinks or talks about covid-19 and its possible treatments.

The broad suspicions about misanthropes and malicious agencies manipulating things behind the scenes have some basis, from facts before us. There are forces getting some pleasures, and material gain, out of human suffering on a global scale. The Covid-19 phenomenon, though, can only be resolved with better knowledge and rigorous thought, guided by love of Truth and Humanity.

President Trump’s press-conference suggestions for Covid-19 treatment point one, logically, to what true American science likely knows and thinks should be done about Covid-19. Some of his, otherwise, scientifically valid messages got lost, apparently, in the communication process. The President ought to have used the qualifier ‘in principle’, and not let journalists misquote him about ‘drinking bleach’. But one familiar with the basic science would, very clearly, understand him! One can, usually, do so if they can identify the essential substance of a medicine and the probable mechanism of its action. Covid-19 shows that scientific non-clarity can yield corpses.

PRESIDENT TRUMP’S SUGGESTED TREATMENTS

The President’s suggestions appear unusual, but only because of the unorthodox presentation. The inferred summary of all his suggestions, except for super-special zinc that most agree is vital in such conditions, is that Covid-19 can be treated with Free radicals. Mostly, oxygen free radicals! That is an, scientifically, incontrovertible Truth as great American science of the 1970s taught, as outlined below!

He suggested use of chloroquine; a known antimalarial. Chloroquine molecular structure is known and mechanism of action is known. It interacts with oxygen-carrying hemoglobin to generate oxygen free radicals. Free radicals kill microbes, including malaria and coronavirus. That is an established scientific fact!

An elaborate study by Ford Health System has, significantly, established that his team was right all along to suggest chloroquine use for covid-19 treatment. He also took it as prophylactic. This, one suspects, could work for a short term. One doesn’t know if it can work indefinitely, to ward-off infection. Drugs have limited time before they are cleared from the blood-stream. Using it continuously for too long might have its own side-effect issues.  But, it could be used more often by frontline health workers, particularly younger ones with stronger hearts, who are in an environment from which they can pick up the virus any day. But the relative safety of long-term continuous use is unknown to me.

Chloroquine plays another important role as zinc-transporter into the cell. Molecular entity that carries ions across lipid cell membrane; ionophore, is what chloroquine is to zinc ions. That is chloroquine facilitates the inflow of zinc into the cell. Anything that can do this, as we see later, is something very important in the body’s energy generation and immune protection. It seems this facilitation of zinc inflow to cells is the basis of chloroquine acting as a prophylactic. Chloroquine’s main direct action is, otherwise, the induction of oxygen free radicals release by cells; like red blood cells.  These so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS) kill some viruses, like coronavirus.

Earlier results’ discrepancies seem to center around TIME as a factor of drug administration. In some of the earlier American studies, as Dr V Zelenko pointed out, chloroquine was given too late from time of Covid-19 onset. Nigeria’s drug regulatory agency has arrived at a similar conclusion about the need for the early administration of chloroquine for effectiveness (https://m.guardian.ng/news/nigeria/national/chloroquine-potent-for-covid-19-prevention-says-nafdac). Moreover, the suggested primary mechanism of action is stopping the virus from entering cells by free radical oxidation of the electron-rich binding-site. So, chloroquine as other sources of free radical treatment against viruses, have to be, necessarily, employed at the onset of infection. Drugs hardly work when administered as ‘last sacrament’ to the dying.

A note here! Those people who are functionally anemic (e.g. obese and aged; who carry more weight than their extant hemoglobin levels are meant to serve with adequate oxygen, have to be treated as a class of their own. Our bone structure, inside which hemoglobin is produced, stops growing by the age of about 35. People who maintain their weights at 35, through their remaining lives, would theoretically do much better, health-wise, than those who don’t.) or with glucose-6-posphate deficiency (e.g. those with sickle-cell gene, for example) might have problem with high chloroquine dosage. This would, particularly, be the case in combination with another oxidizing agent, like azithromycin.

That is those whose hemoglobin easily oxidize to methemoglobin may not be given normal doses of chloroquine and azithromycin in combination. That might asphyxiate them; due to excess free radicals, from both, synergistically oxidizing an excess of their hemoglobin. When hemoglobin is oxidized it cannot carry oxygen. It is a disease on its own (methemoglobinemia). This, likely, might account for the greater morbidity of those given this very oxidative combination therapy in the Ford Health system study (https:/www.ijidonline.com/article/S1201-9712(20)30534-8/fulltext).  This group, also, might need blood transfusion under the Covid-19 condition, as their blood system is, by nature, compromised by excessive oxidation.

The President suggested the possible use of ultra-violet, UV, radiation. This makes scientific sense, in principle. When UV radiation hits molecular bonds, such as those in the human body, it can break them to form free radicals. These would kill coronavirus. But safe delivery of UV, by whole body irradiation, without damaging unintended tissues, is the problem here.

One ought to have used the qualifier ‘in principle’ for use of UV irradiation to kill coronavirus. This is because even though science says doing so would be efficacious, scientists know that the technology for doing so safely is not available at this time. In fairness, the President had turned to a scientific advisor with him, at the particular press conference, to get concurrence that Americans are working to develop the necessary technology for safe delivery of ultra-violet radiation for treating diseases as coronavirus. Otherwise, UV radiation is already in common use to disinfect objects without tissues like planes, hotels and buildings, etc., of coronavirus.  (https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/health/2020/08/03/covid-does-uv-light-kill-viruses-germs-what-to-know/5546413002).

Potential use of bleach was suggested (this to Americans and others who know, usually, means Sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl; but also Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 and Chlorine dioxide, ClO2). This, too, makes scientific sense. It generated the most hostile public reactions because of the high potential for fatal abuse.  The essential substance of the most common bleach; sodium hypochlorite, NaOCl, breaks down easily to common table salt and atomic oxygen free radical. It is the oxygen radical that does the bleaching as well as kills microbes.

The popular online medical journal WebMD recently wrote “Bleach mixed with water is an effective way to kill coronavirus…” (https://www.wmb.com/a-to-z guides/ss/slideshow-cleaning-with-bleach-harmful-mistakes-youre-making). This, as stated, is for cleansing and not drinking! Unstable Hydrogen peroxide, H2O2 (a teeth whitener in America), would also break down to yield pure water and atomic oxygen radical. And so would Chlorine dioxide, ClO2 break down to yield free radicals.

Running currently, on some television news channels in Nigeria, is an advertisement on the use of Bleach to kill Coronavirus. The advert says, in effect, while illustrating with cleansing movements “To kill Coronavirus, use Bleach; any bleach!”. A few noteworthy points on this. One is that scientists and industrialists in Nigeria as in America and around the world know that bleach kills coronavirus. “Use bleach; any bleach” means that, like America, scientists in Nigeria and around the world know that there are many types of substances more properly called ‘bleaching agents’. And, finally, the Nigerian advertisers presume that everybody knows that bleaching agents are for cleansing and not for drinking. No advertiser should make such a presumption, as the furore over the issue in America highlights. Not with association with a novel phenomenon like Covid-19.

Azithromycin (an interview with Dr V Zelenko; https://youtu.be/1TJdjhd_XG8) can be added to the suggested treatment suite. It turns out that this drug acts by stimulating a family of white blood cells called polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes to fire a barrage of free radicals at perceived invading entities like Azithromycin. This is, usually, the first line of defense; called innate immunity, against perceived alien invaders of the human body. So, its mechanism, like others in the suggested Covid-19 medicaments, primarily, uses free radicals to fight off perceived invaders.

The main problem with some of the suggestions, therefore, is non-use of the necessary qualifier to indicate that the technology for applying the science safely to humans does not yet exist. So, all the suggested potential treatments are scientifically sound, in principle, except the technology is not available. But there is a, scientifically, useful pattern drawn by the suggestions for Covid-19 treatment…a general hypothesis that can be inferred, by making a simplifying assumption.

Science deals with observations and knowledge of natural patterns. Science is also a communal endeavor …trending from what is known through the ages to what we know now, and heading to the unknowns of the future. That is why science always deals with references … authenticating a statement by referring to the authority of credible predecessors. The President has, in fact, drawn a clear profile of the Essential Substance that kills coronavirus. This can be used as Medicine for Covid-19 treatment. He has provided a ‘Set of data’ from which useful Information can be extracted by Inference. Reading the pattern made by the suggestions, one with appropriate training can surmise that Free radicals, from diverse sources, are the Essential Medicine against coronavirus. This is consistent with what established science already knows is possible.

This is what the great American science of the 1970s taught (Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Youngstown State University and University of Houston). It is difficult to believe that the great USA scientific community can’t easily see this in 2020. One believes they can! But something is not right somewhere. This has already been indicated by the commentator who raised the critical issue of Lysenko’s pseudoscience interfering with regular science!

The United States is not alone in this kind of scientific challenge in the modern world. It is, indeed, the manifest symptom of Failed World Science. And failure of the quasi-natural worldview on which that science is based. This unfortunate situation allows for fragmentary thinking. It also allows the delusive conception of the possibility of ‘alternative truth and alternative science’!

The idea of failed world science; because of inefficient guiding paradigm, over-specialization and inefficient teaching, was arrived at during the Rio+20 conference on climate change. This was at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2012. This, it was agreed, explains the inability of existing world science to explain climate change; a complex system crisis, in such a way as to know what to, precisely and usefully, do to solve it. It is within this State of Uncertainty that ‘Alternative Facts’ and consequent ‘Alternative Science’ emerge to compete with Demonstrable Facts and Natural Science. And world scientists are trying to do something about it by promoting Interdisciplinary and Multidisciplinary; Holistic, science.

Future Earth is an organization that a consortium of major world scientific organizations (International Council for Science, United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization; UNESCO, etc.) have established to midwife this new paradigm of Holistic Science, in place of current Fragmentary Science. This needs a change in worldview, thought-way, and scientific education paradigm.

At a Library of Alexandria lecture; Egypt 2016, as then Chairman African Future Earth Committee, I had argued, given the facts, that African holistic worldview (Uwaizu) and thought-way (Imamaizu) was best suited for dealing with holistic complexity; as climate change. Covid-19 seems to fit into such a class of challenging complex problems. So, the Americans are not to blame, alone, for the world’s scientific sleep-walk around the climate change crisis and, now, Covid-19. The whole World Science and World Leadership are the failing parties.

PRESIDENT RAJOELINA’S COVID-ORGANICS

The implicit hypothesis from the American President’s suggestions; that free radicals are, at least initially, the Prime Medicine against coronavirus, is strongly supported by the alternative prescription of Africa’s President Andry Rajoelina of Madagascar. The difference is that, as one can note, President Rajoelina’s Covid-organics is a novel medicine to the world. That is, in spite of the fact that the Malagache have been using it to treat malaria long before it was repurposed. Chloroquine shares antimalarial activity with Covid-organics. Like chloroquine, Covid-organics should, in principle, treat Covid-19. That is, provided it is taken in the right quantity and right way, at the right time of the viral progression in the body.

The Covid-organics’ killer agent is the same free radicals, though the sources are different. The principle of formulation of Covid-organics is also different. African Medicine does not encourage Monotherapy…one disease one-bullet-drug paradigm of current Western Medicine. People are not taking note that the formulators of Covid-organics are, strongly, implying this point in their explanations. They indicate that there are congeners in the tonic that make it more potent than an ordinary drug monotherapy. This way of thinking, having more than one element in a medicine, is consistent with African medical paradigm of holotherapy. That, one can surmise, is why diseases like malaria could not easily develop resistance to traditional treatments, until alien monotherapy came.

The main ingredient of Covid-organics is the well-established antimalarial agent Artemisinin.  Artemisinin is a plant extract of Artemisia annua, found in Madagascar and elsewhere. On 30 December, 2019, the America-based Journal of Functional Foods in Health and Diseases had published my paper “Forest West African Indigenous Diet and Modernization Diseases” (One can Google this paper and see the illustrated structure of artemisinin, as properly labelled: https://www.ffhdj.com/index.php/article/ffhd/view/673/1190). One can observe the two oxygen atoms, coded red, that are together within the artemisinin structure. That is the source of the free radical in question for killing either malarial parasite, coronavirus or other susceptible microbes.

Artemisinin is a peroxide. That means it, like Hydrogen peroxide, contains extra oxygen within its structure. When perturbed, like by enzymes in the body, it easily releases this excess oxygen as free radical, as a reactive oxygen metabolite, ROM. Like in chloroquine, UV or Bleach earlier suggested, it is the free radical from artemisinin that kills microbes, including malaria. Free radicals, as stated above, also kill coronavirus, as already established by science.

In addition to Artemisinin, Artemisia annua is rich in the amino-acid L-arginine as well as Proto-anthocyanidins, which metabolism generate Nitric oxide; NO, as reactive oxygen metabolites. This gives Covid-organics the advantage of combining different kinds of known virucidal free radicals to combat Covid-19. This could be the source of suggested prophylactic effect of Covid-organics (https://medcraveonline.com/PPIJ/tannins-in-artemesia-the-hidden-treasure-of-prophylaxis.html). Generation of NO from L-arginine, for instance, lasts over an extended period of time.

A Nigerian young man in Houston, who survived Covid-19 earlier in the onset of the pandemic, had drawn attention to artemisinin as coronavirus medicine. He made a video that went viral, informing those back home in Nigeria, to use Lonart if the disease ever attacked them. That is what he used to cure himself. Lonart is a brand of artemisinin combination therapy drug in Nigeria. Unable to be helped by the health system that asked him to wait out the disease at home (a practical mistake), while his situation degenerated, he felt desperate. Noticing that some of the symptoms mimicked malaria, he took the Lonart supply he had taken back from Nigeria, usually as a precaution, the last time he was home. He quickly recovered, he said.

So, when President Rajoelina announced covid-organics from Artemisia annua, hence artemisinin, as useful in Covid-19 care it just corroborated the experience of the Houston Nigerian. And for someone who had just published a paper on the subject, it made sense. One suspects that part of what is moderating the spread of Covid-19 in the tropics is people confusing the symptoms with malaria and treating themselves with some antimalarial, like artemisinin, as they usually do (https://dailypost.ng/2020/07/19/ncdc-warns-against-mistaking-symptoms-of-covid-19-for-malaria).

This self-medication, to some degree, is one ironic advantage of living in dysfunctional African Berlin-States. Here individuals and communities are, mostly, on their own in desperate times like this compared to over-regulated, but caring, normal Westphalia States. On the other hand, this similarity of symptoms also led the Houston Nigerian to, serendipitously, use Lonart/artemisinin when he was left helpless and desperate. Covid-organics; with artemisinin, and other congeners, has significant advantages, as medicine, over chloroquine in this wise. But chloroquine has the advantage of being zinc ionosphere (zinc helps cells generate free radicals). One hopes, though, that those who use Covid-organics also use Zinc.

            These ideas are consistent with the fact that artemisinin is much more preferred for the treatment of malaria in the world today. That is compared to, say, chloroquine. Whereas chloroquine induces oxygen-carrying oxyhemoglobin to convert the oxygen to free radicals, artemisinin, as peroxide, carries along its own oxygen to release as free radical. By making oxyhemoglobin to create free radicals, chloroquine oxidizes some of it to a form called methemoglobin that cannot carry oxygen. Methemoglobin is, in a way, mischievous. It does not only not carry oxygen; it induces neighbors not carry oxygen by what is called allosteric inhibition.

By not carrying oxygen methemoglobin, in consequence, simulates anemia-like condition that is stressful to the heart; inducing high blood pressure, etc. This is why chloroquine is not heart-friendly to some people, whose system is already under stress. So, Covid-organics, in that sense, is better to the chloroquine. Of course optimal dosage, additives, congeners, etc., are something different from consideration of basic efficacy of Covid-organics.

Covid-organics, also, contains a long used and potent extract of a second Madagascan plant; Ravensara. One has looked at the phytochemistry of Ravensara. It is rich in Flavanols, for example. It is a potentially very rich source of Nitric oxide, NO, as reactive oxygen metabolite. Nitric oxide is, an already known, powerful and desirable free radical source for coronavirus management. NO from this source complementing that from L-arginine and proto-anthocyanidins, as already indicated, would make Covid-organics a potentially very potent free radicals source for action against coronavirus.  

Above surmises would work out if people don’t mix Artemisia annua with sources of vitamin C; a free radical scavenger. Some people are already making this mistake; mixing artemisinin-rich Artemisia annua or chloroquine with Vitamin C-rich Moringa oleifera, etc. Taking free radicals mixed with free radical scavengers, that neutralize it, is equivalent to drinking pure water instead of medicine.

The 64-year old Madagascar Institute of Applied Research that formulated Covid-organics is one of the world’s best in Phytomedicine. Let African people not listen to self-serving aliens, like France, on the Covid-organics issue!  It is instructive that the African countries using Covid-organics, e.g. Tanzania and Madagascar, are doing better than their neighbors in the management of the pandemic (https://.worldmeters.info/coronavirus/country/Tanzania; https://www.theelephant.info/reflections/2020/07/02/covid-organics-towards-an-african-renaissance/).

Some Africans out of ignorance, self-interest or foreign intrigues, are importing costlier drugs for higher death rates than use cheaper, better, Covid-organics. Covid-organics is, as one knows, formulated by world-class scientists. Death, ancient Africans observed, is the reward for ignorance! Again, one does not understand how Covid-organics works as prophylactic, considering the other factors in it. Taking it ahead of time to keep malaria from destroying oxygen-carrying red blood cells before Covid-19 arrives could be one possible, functional, prophylactic use. And this added the long time generation of reactive oxygen metabolites.

It is important to note at this point that observing that Chloroquine and Artemisinin would, using free radicals, kill malarial parasites as well as coronaviruses, does not mean that all malarial drugs would cure Covid-19. They only can, in this particular case, if they can generate free radicals or use other mechanism to interfere with its life cycle. Some antimalarial called anti-folates, for example, kill malarial parasites not with free radicals. They do by blocking nutrient (hydrogen) flow to them. This is, chemically, equivalent to killing with oxygen as both ways are oxidations. Self-medication, outside doctors’ advice, should be avoided as possible at a time like this.

OTHER POTENTIAL SOURCES OF ANTI-COVID-19 FREE RADICALS

If oxygen free radicals are the main things that kill coronavirus, are there other sources that would be more effective than artemisinin or chloroquine? The answer is yes! The knowledge and practice are already long established. Lack of popular usage within the pharmaceutical and medical establishment is the hindrance.

Hydrogen, H2O2, though noted above as a bleach… generally inapplicable for internal use because of safe delivery technical challenges, can really be of some use with Covid-19. In appropriate dilutions, it is an established mouthwash, for instance (https://www.colgate.com/en-us/oral-health/life-stages/adult-oral-care/hydrogen-peroxde-gums-and-teeth-treatments). It can also be used to gargle the throat, swab the nose and ear, etc. (https://www.medicalnewstoday/articles/322725). Any coronavirus particle destroyed is one less to worry about! All medical workers, particularly those engaged in Covid-19 work, should be supplied with and taught to, correctly, use hydrogen peroxide to help with self-protection.

Nitric oxide, NO, is a very powerful, applicable to Covid-19, free radical. It can efficiently treat coronavirus. Nitric oxide is vasodilatory, antithrombotic, oxygenatory, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, virucidal, etc. NO is the kind of active substance that coronaviruses would pray never to encounter. Nitric oxide is one of the best available, but unutilized, medicine for the treatment of coronavirus (some investigation into possible use is, at this time, ongoing; https:///www.medscape.com/answers/2500114-197460/what-is-the-role-of-nitric-oxide-in-the-treatment-of-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19; https://www.news-medical.net/news/20200721/nitric-oxide-treatment-can-be-pivotal-in-the-fight-against-COVID–19.aspx; https://www.healio.com/news/primary-care/20200520/evidence-mounts-supporting-inhaled-ntric-oxide-as-covid-19-treatment; Home Nitric Oxide Therapy for Covid-19…https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7328337/; https://www.thailandmedical.news/news/exploring-inhaled-nitric-oxide-ino-as-as-an-aduvant-covid-19-19-treatment-for-pulmonary-issues/; Nitric Oxide inhibits The Replication Cycle of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus…https://jvi.asm.org/content/79/3/1966, etc.). These many references are deliberately cited. Nitric oxide, at least as adjuvant, would be very useful in the treatment of either covid-19 or covid-9999. Why, then, is Nitric oxide not in use, currently, against coronavirus?

One should not much mind the cynical pontifications about safety by self-serving agencies and individuals. Nitric oxide is used to treat fragile newborns that have serious lung inflammation! And they usually recover and thrive. So, adults can use it! And, there is a word called dilution if need be, if high concentration appears harsh to use. At least, at risk medical personnel fighting coronavirus ought to be given NO inhalation (usually diluted in oxygen), at this time, as they come and go from work, as prophylactic.

The problem is that Nitric oxide, as a natural substance, cannot be patented by the big pharmaceutical drug companies, nicknamed Bigpharma. These are driven by the profit motive.  These companies, having taken control of the world’s pharmaceutical industry, would not encourage use of non-profitable, but effective, medicine as Nitric oxide. Their normal alibi is that they need huge amounts of money to research for new drugs. But, in some cases their synthetic drugs, to which microbes mostly develop resistance to, are not as effective as natural products.

The synthetic drugs are also so costly that they are inaccessible to many. The kernel of justice is equal access to life and death! So, dominant drug companies, by their profit-driven policy, inherently, promote an unjust world medical system. And above all, they violate the African pro-life medical ethics of Amenhotep. As Homer noted “Egyptian doctors are the first scientists of the world”. That refers to the system of Amenhotep, which was part of the greater African system of the time (Agwu in my Igbo language is the same as Tehuti/Thoth; patron spirit of Science and Medicine of ancient Egypt, still found all-over Africa today).

Chlorine dioxide, ClO2; a bleach, is a known virucidal free radical source. It is used to treat drinking water. It is toxic when ingested at significant concentrations above that used to treat drinking water. In principle it should deactivate Covid-19 virus, if it can be safely delivered. Some people who have the idea now already market it as Covid-19 medicine. This they are doing without formal approval from the regulatory authorities, who might be under regulatory constraint (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/chloride_dioxide). It does take high level chemical knowledge to know that it can be used as Covid-19 medicine. But, because it is not patentable, as a natural substance, the effort might not go far to further investigate its medicinal use.

It is the self-protecting duty of those who need cheaper, and so affordable medicines, to research the best safe method to apply substances as Chlorine dioxide with potential medicinal use. And this seems to be what’s going on in the South American country of Bolivia at this time. It is unofficially used, as yet, but publicly used all the same. In the streets of Bolivia, during this Covid-19 period, Chlorine dioxide is being hawked and used by many people. The Bolivian National Assembly has also, already, passed a bill to legalize formal use of ClO2 to treat Covid-19 in the country.

The bill awaits their Covid-19 quarantined President to sign into law. This would, officially, make Bolivia the first country in the world to legalize the very potent ClO2 useforCovid-19 treatment (https://time.com/5868391/cochabamba-fake-toxic-coronavirus-cure-chlorine-dioxide/). This is the right thing to do. Some people have already been hospitalized with over-dose of chlorine dioxide. Legalization will allow dosage regulation by experts and minimize risky self-medication. Soon, when people better appreciate the mechanism, other peoples around the world will follow.

Now that we know, it is the duty of all and sundry to search for efficacious and available sources of free radicals to treat coronaviruses. That means Coronavirus-2019 and all other coronaviruses to follow in its wake. This is because coronaviruses will always carry the electron-rich binding-sites that free radical will always attack and damage. Without these binding sites, the virus cannot enter the cell. With the efficient and broad application of Oxygenotherapy, the era of one-year-one-vaccine would be over. And during future pandemics, the curves would be kept mostly flat.

It would be helpful if, during this Covid-19 period, Chlorine dioxide treated water, diluted to a critically safe level, is offered patients and health workers alike. Municipal water treatment plants can also use Chlorine dioxide instead of ordinary Chlorine in their water treatments. This is particularly advisable as scientists in Argentina and elsewhere have shown that Coronavirus flows down the sewage system to contaminate water bodies.

In any case, any extra atom of oxygen (as free radical or not) that gets into the body would kill coronavirus as well as oxygenate the tissues to generate energy. As already suggested, in the use of bleach (sodium hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide, as understood, ordinarily), only lack of technology was between the science and safe delivery to treat Covid-19.

Finally, there is the super-oxygen called ozone, O3. Ozone is a super-medicine against microbes, including coronavirus. Ozone is when three oxygen atoms co-exist in one molecule. Two oxygen atoms, normally, co-exist in normal oxygen, O2. Ozone is, therefore, less stable than ordinary oxygen. It, easily, releases the third oxygen atom; as free radical, like bleach but more powerful. This leaves ordinary stable oxygen, O2, behind. Ozone would kill coronavirus more effectively than any other substance, though not as gentle on the tissues as some other things. Why is ozone, then, not in use against Covid-19?

American doctor Robert Rowen and his team were, in 2014, invited to Sierra-Leone by then President Earnest Koroma during the Ebola outbreak there and in neighboring Liberia (Rowen-Robins Ebola Treatment Protocol; https://www.oxygentech.comhttps://blog.daveasprey.com/dr-robert-rowen-treating-ebola-ozone-therapy-168/). They arrived to treat the disease with ozone therapy, at which they were experts. But that was not to be. The Sierra-Leone Government was, as reported in the press, intimidated to send Rowen and his team away. The Sierra Leoneans are yet to tell their own side of the story. Ultimately, 11,000 Africans died, while inefficacious drugs for Ebola, like Remdesivir, were tested on a hapless African people.

More Africans would have died in Nigeria and farther afield if, under President Goodluck Jonathan, a scientist, the Nigerian Government did not act fast with appropriate knowledge and resolution. The Nigerian medical team; inspired by the heroic sacrifice of late Dr Ameyo Adadevoh who, literally with her life, blocked the driven and suspicious moves of the index case; a Liberian-American called Sawyer, saved the day.

Powers that believe the people of the Gulf-of-Guinea are natural guinea-pigs for testing their drugs and bio-weapons were behind the sacrilege. They think Africans are too ignorant and stupid to know what’s going on. But, Africans do know something is going on, and going wrong. Recently French researchers, out of habit, suggested that Covid-19 vaccines be tested first on Africans. Only worldwide uproar from African youths, including Diaspora, aborted the plot.

So, potent and available ozone cannot be used against Covid-19 because some powerful misanthropes in the world, for their self-interest, just don’t want it used. When Covid-19 struck, Dr. Rowen; a tireless campaigner for ozone therapy, quickly wrote a journal article to draw the world’s attention to the urgent need to apply ozone to save lives or slow the spread until vaccines are developed.

That article was written as early as March, 2020, and titled: “A Plausible “Penny” Costing Effective Treatment for Corona Virus – Ozone Therapy” (Rowen RJ, Robins H; 2020. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology: 6:113. doi.org/10.23937/2474-3658/1510113). A full quote of the abstract of the paper gives an appropriate insight into the argument it makes:

Many viruses require reduced sulfhydryl groups for cell fusion and entry. Coronaviruses, including SARS-CoV-2 (the cause of the condition now named coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19), are rich in cysteine, which residues must be intact for viral activity. Sulfhydryl groups are vulnerable to oxidation. Ozone therapy, a very inexpensive and safe modality, may exploit this critical vulnerability in many viruses, inclusive of SARS-CoV-2”.

Let us analyze, to better understand, what Rowen and his co-author have said. They observe that the coronavirus requires a sulfur-rich amino acid, cysteine, on its covering coat to enter and infect a human cell. Many, from secondary school chemistry, will know that certain atoms, like sulfur and nitrogen, carry what is called free electron-pair. Free in the sense that they are easily accessible to any chemical in search of electrons. That ozone is a super-oxidant means that it is super-desperate in its search to acquire electrons.

Bringing ozone and cysteine together is, therefore, like bringing fire and cooking-gas together. The ozone would, quickly, burn the sulfur in the cysteine. After this, the virus cannot enter the cell, because the binding-site is damaged. Ozone, therefore, easily kills coronaviruses. Ozone is safe when properly prepared and handled by trained experts, like Dr Rowen. The Cubans, with their world-class public health system, have well-developed ozone therapy establishment. Some European countries, like Germany and Russia, also have the practice, but not as broadly as could.  Some Americans, like Dr Rowen and his team are also licensed to practice ozone therapy, although some states do not allow the practice.

Those who argue against use of ozone to treat coronavirus; mostly non-scientist businessmen, have no scientific or medical case to back their position. Note “Penny Costing Effective Treatment”, with the Penny in inverted comas for emphasis. Penny costing means super-cheap. And that super-cheapness is precisely why nobody is talking about it, and rather suppressing it, while corpses of hapless humans fill mortuaries around the world.

Conventional pharmaceutical companies cannot make big money by promoting it. If a pandemic becomes so acceptably profitable, why would not some malicious researcher invent both a microbe and a drug; instigate a pandemic…as conspiracy theorists already suggest, and make trillions? One can compare “penny costing” ozone to Remdesivir; originally used unfruitfully on Ebola. It costs three thousand plus dollars ($3,000+) for a course of treatment.

Remdesivir is a guanosine analogue; guanosine look-alike. Guanosine is one of the main building-blocks of genes. Remdesivir is a competitive inhibitor of guanosine uptake to build the viral genome, because it can be mistaken for guanosine. It is this confusion of possibly putting in the wrong block that can slow down the process of the virus multiplying itself. But, it cannot stop the multiplication altogether. It is like a road-bump that slows down a vehicle, but cannot stop its movement. It can be, more realistically, combined with true virus killers, with free radicals or other mechanism. Like Chloroquine, Nitric oxide, Ozone or Covid-organics, so they can take better aim as the virus is slowed down by Remdesivir. As it functions inside the cell, this would be useful in late stage cases after the virus has entered the cell.

One of the top minds in the field of Drug discovery in an interview says this of Remdesivir:

“…the drug is; helpful, but not a cure! Because there is no way that one single drug can shut down a viral infection. That is one thing we have sort of proven over the years!” … Dr Derek Lowe (https://youtu.be/8NjpHQcPmtQ).

Note “there is no way that one single drug can shut down a viral infection”. That is what African medicine, as indicated above, found out ages ago that informs their non-preference of monotherapy. It is the African paradigm of polytherapy or indeed holotherapy that, in turn, informed the formulation of Covid-organics, as the formulators clearly indicated by their published works.

So, if a drug that is “not a cure”, but at best an adjuvant, is approved by the regulatory authorities, why is penny costing ozone not approved? A professional observer on the issue thinks:

The FDA and pharmaceutical companies have been suppressing all forms of ozone therapy for many years. The reason may simply be because it is so effective and is thus a threat to the medical and pharmaceutical companies” (Nancy Hearns; waterbenefitshealth.com/ozonated-drinking-water.html).

Let us reflect on “The reason may simply be because it is so effective…”. Super-effectiveness disqualifies a desperately needed, available, medicine for Covid-19 treatment. And this while millions gasp for air and multiples of thousands die?This conflict of values; between live and money, one notes, is part of what has led the, otherwise, mighty United States; and the world along with it, into a Covid-catastrophe. Monetization of life-and-death issue like this Covid-19 pandemic is unfortunate, and in African cultures abominable.

Well, the poor peoples that cannot afford a $3,000+, adjuvant only, drug have the option of “penny costing ozone” if they wish to live or they can ignore it and die. Interestingly Cuba, as already indicated, with one of the best medical systems for cost in the world, also has one of the best Ozone therapy establishments in the world (The quality of a medical system is reflected in the mean life expectancy of the people). Africans, and other impoverished peoples, should look to, usually, helpful Cuba for help to quickly develop the capacity in ozone therapy to deal with Covid-19 and other orphan diseases, like malaria, that ravage their lands.

Potable ozonized water is already an established commercial product in many countries. This should be the drinking water of choice for Covid-19 patients and health workers. Vulnerable old people in Care-Centers should use ozonized water. Health workers can in fact, liberally, gargle with it or cleanse their nasal cavities, ears, as well as drink, etc., at intervals of work, as prophylactic measure. Quenching any process that grows geometrically, like viruses, at any point in time, goes a long way in stopping its progression.

THE METABOLIC SPECIALNESS OF ZINC

To say that zinc is special in body metabolism is to make an understatement. Picture, in your mind, a large cosmopolitan city with two gates; an entrance gate and an exit gate. Visualize one person manning the two opposite gates, as gatekeeper. When you have a clear picture of this double gatekeeper in mind, just know you are looking at the equivalent of zinc in the body. Zinc is, arguably, the most important life-promoting metal in human metabolism. Zinc, as key cofactor of tissue metabolism (at the beginning pushing; with the enzyme glucose-6-phasphate dehydrogenase, and at the end pulling; with the enzyme carbonic anhydrase), ensures that electrons are pulled off from glucose or equivalent to attach to incoming oxygen. It also ensures that waste carbonic acid is pulled off as carbon dioxide and water, through urine and sweat. This process, in-between, generates the free radicals for killing microbes, including coronavirus, inside the cell. That in addition to the generation of energy for the body.

            Zinc has its own unique role in catalyzing energy generation for the whole body, particularly, under stress. Its amphoteric nature (acting at times as acid and at other necessary times as base) nature would moderate the tendency of higher metabolic rate organism to take over the cell. Zinc is so important that body energy metabolism is proportional to the amount of zinc as it is proportional to the amount of oxygen in the body. So, the optimized product of zinc and oxygen determine the, overall, metabolism rate. The amount of free radicals generated inside the cells is, in turn, proportional to the rate of metabolism. It is these free radicals that kill microbes, like Coronavirus, inside cells. Some of the cells that do produce these free, like neutrophils, are involved with body defense. Zinc is involved in body immunity.

THYROID HORMONES AND TISSUE METABOLISM

It is important to take note of the hormone that sets the rate of metabolism in the body; Thyroxine. Whereas Zinc and Oxygen; acting together, determine the aggregate amount of energy, and free radicals, generation in the body it is, in turn, the hormone Thyroxine that determines the amount of Zinc and oxygen that can, usefully, enter the body. So, Thyroxine, ultimately, determines the level of energy metabolism and, consequently, the amount of free radicals generated in the cells. So, the amount of Thyroxine determines the microbe killing capacity in the body. When the Thyroxine level is low, Hypothyroidism, many other activities decrease in proportion. These include, among others, the Vitamin D implicated in Coronavirus pathology. And so is another thyroid hormone Calcitonin, which like Vitamin D is involved in calcium metabolism. Thyroxine is low in low metabolic rate people, including the aged. Also, because people with low thyroxine have low capacity to metabolize food, they are more likely to grow obese, etc.  So, to treat problems like hypothyroidism with thyroxine supplementation is advised. Thyroxine levels of patients should be of prime consideration in Covid-19 treatment. Thyroid status, and aggregate metabolism, might explain greater death rates among aged people and those with metabolic syndrome.

BASAL METABOLIC RATE AND RESPIRATORY BURST OR CYTOKINE STORM

As indicated above the rate of body metabolism influences how the body generates and uses energy, including for defense against invasive organisms. Significant Covid-19 evidence suggests that those with higher metabolic rates; like young compared to older and males compared females, rely more on the very first line of defense of innate immunity. That is the generation and deployment of free radicals, in a so-called Respiratory Burst, to deactivate the invasive organism. The free radicals oxidize the covering lipid membrane of the virus, thereby deactivating it. They also burn up the electron-rich binding spikes and landing sites of the virus, inhibiting their entry into cells.

Failing in this free radical, initial, defense the body sends out an alarm through signaling substances called Cytokines (‘cells mobilizers’), for a general mobilization of relevant immune cells for second-line defense…Acquired Immunity. When the invasion is perceived as an immediate danger to survival cytokines are released in a proportionately excessive amount, called Cytokine Storm. Antibodies are generated in proportionate response to the cytokine signal intensity.

So, antibodies are employed in this final and longer-term defense process. Females, with less innate respiratory capacity (less oxygen intake and lower metabolic rate) than males, tend to rely more on this antibody defense. This makes sense, as females with more genes (through their more gene-containing X-chromosomes), have the greater capacity to generates more varied proteins (each gene codes for a protein; more genes, more proteins), including antibodies. This seems to account for elderly males dying more tying to fight off Covid-19 through the antibody mechanism, when they fail through the respiratory burst oxidant mechanism. On the other hand, younger people with greater respiratory (oxygen uptake) capacity seem to fight-off the virus better using free radicals from their more powerful respiratory burst.

The differences in male and female; as well as young versus old people, do suggest a paradigm of viewing Covid-19, aa well as possible methods of treating it. This is because at the base of all the differences, between the groups, is differences in their basal metabolic rates. Between males and females, there are also differences in genome (the totality of genes), proteome (the totality of proteins) and endocrinome (the totality of hormones) possessed by the groups. These differences are all, in turn, reflected in differences in body metabolism and immunity. These differences and their manifest implications for covid-19 pathology can, reasonably, guide thought and action for remediation.

CONSPIRACY THEORIES AND COVID-19 MEDICINES

Many conspiracy theories about drugs and vaccines have been circulating across the world around covid-19. It is unfortunate that that should be the case during a global pandemic that is hurting all humanity. The time calls for synergistic joint action to solve the nightmare, instead of pursuit of individualistic gain. But those with zero-sum mindset; who think they are cleverer than the Nature they are part of, but cannot even comprehend the hegemony of Covid-19 over 2020 planet Earth, think otherwise. Ignorance is Disease, Disease is Death!

The suggestion, as indicated above, has been made that cheap and potent ozone has been deliberately suppressed, for profit reasons, at the expense of public good and human life. But the brazen role of France in trying to discredit and suppress Madagascar’s Covid-organics is of particular concern to Africans, and should also concern all humanity that believe that human lives-matter. For instance, Radio France International conducted a program prejudicially titled: “Artemisia: Madagascar’s Coronavirus cure or Covid-19 quackery?” (5 May 2020…https://amp.rfi.rf/en/africa/20200505-artemisia-madagascar-s-coronavirus-cure-or-covid-19-quackery-covid-organics-malaria”). Quackery?

France; former colonizer of Madagacar, knows that Covid-organics was formulated by the reputable Madagascar Institute for Applied Research, which was established during their colonial times, in 1956. Yet, French media published the product as if it is a mere concoction from some village herbalist-villain.

Second, the French Pasteur Institute in Madagascar, in the apparent service of France, falsified data to confound the test results on Covid-organics. They only recanted because they were caught (“Pasteur Institute in Madagascar admits errors in Covid-19 analysis”. https://www.rfi.fr/en/africa/20200516-pasteru-institute-in-madagascar-admits-error-in-its-covid-analysis).

Worse is that France is reported to have organized to cut down, and burn, Artemisia annua plantations in Cameroun. Cameroon, like Cote D’Ivoire, DR Congo (whose Minister of Health offered his county for French vaccine tests) and some others in Africa, is a Francophonie French neo-colony. Plantations destroyed included those of Cameroon Research institutes, where researchers’ lives were threatened. France carried out this sacrilege so that the raw materials would not exist, in sufficient quantities, for the sustainable production of Covid-organics to deal with the pandemic in Africa.

This abominable act (it is abominable in African tradition to destroy farms) in the Cameroon, shows that France knows, as it would know, that Covid-organics is potent.  France, that plots to test her Covid-19 vaccines on Africans, apparently, became alarmed and desperate when the whole African continent whose peoples, if not Berlin-State Governments, were proudly enthusiastic about Covid-organics started celebrating it. The Covid-organics value-chain had to be disrupted, by all means, by neocolonialist France.

As an online Cameroonian, recently, lamented: “Several cases of murders or attempted murders have become known recently. It is also discouraging for them that their (Cameroonian researchers) research and numerous clinical trials are ignored or depreciated by medical neocolonialism, mostly by French experts”

(https://globalvoices.org/2020/06/08/the-rise-of-artemisia-in-Cameroon-in-the fight-against-covid-19; https://www.malarialworld.org/blog/revolting-aerteisia-plantations-desroyed-police-cameroon-0). This report is interesting because, as indicated, the Artemisia annua plantation destruction had, in fact, started before Covid-19. And the original aim was to make this vital local malaria treatment herb unavailable to the local Africans who depend on it. The intended beneficiaries of the sacrilege, the reporter writes, is Bigpharma. Bigpharma is the collective nickname of the alien giant, and mercenary, pharmaceutical companies. Patron Spirit of Bigpharma is Mammon; god of money, and not Agwu of the true doctors. This is a clear case of Alien Engineered African Dependency in the vital health sector. Now Africans need Artemisia annua to produce Covid-organics, but alien interests are maliciously cutting plantations of it down, to destroy the value-chain.

So, if Africans cannot produce what they can afford, like Covid-organics, to secure themselves from Covid-19, and cannot afford to buy what France and Bigpharma would want to sell to Africa, corpses would litter the streets and villages of Africa. Just like happened with Ebola?

Somebody, touting vaccines in respect of Covid-19, had indeed predicted that millions of Africans might die of Covid-19 and fill African streets with corpses, if their vaccines are not administered on time. And France, which has been, for years, complaining about African population growth (https://www.bbc.com/news/amp/world-africa-4471574), because she wants African resources for her own people, is systematically trying to engineer that corpse-filled streets scenario in Africa? Like France engineered endemic poverty in Haiti, with the cooperation of Western powers, with the iniquitous military imposition of indemnity on victorious enslaved Africans, that had defeated the French empire in their war for freedom!

Africa has about 22% of world landmass. But, Africa has about 12% of world population. This resulted from the Arab-European slave-trade’s destruction of more than half African population… Moreover, much of the claims and projections on present and future sizes of African population are false and malicious propaganda to serve sinister agenda against Africa. Africa is not as populous as claimed. Some African countries, for political reasons, claim spurious populations that adversaries are happy to broadcast for their own interests.

Child-spacing was three years across Africa. That is until alien ‘civilization’ came with cow-milk, and unregulated birth-rate, and ruined that ancient, scientific, tradition. That tradition ensured that the child thrived by full breast-milk nurturing that ensured well-developed brain, as believed. It also ensured that the mother fully recuperated; physically and economically, from child-birth. World over-population is not a primary African creation. France would be in better stead to listen to the Italians! Stop parasitizing on Africa with the mindset of an Obligate Parasite that cannot survive outside African blood-sucking! (https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-46955006).

Add these to French, and others, plot to use Africans as Guinea-pigs for their vaccines! It becomes clear that there is something sinister going on around Covid-19 that is not mere speculative conspiracy theory. There is active, racist and manifest, malice around the covid-19 phenomenon! Mercenary conspiracy against humanity and, particularly, against Africans!

OXYGEN AS COVID-19 MEDICINE

It has been demonstrated that Oxygen Free Radicals are the most basic anti-covid-19 substances available. The logical question would be ‘what about oxygen itself? Could it not, also, be used to treat Covid-19? The answer is that oxygen and oxygen compounds are potent.

One’s life’s academic work; studying Sicklecell Disease alongside Malaria, has led to an interesting, and significant, level of understanding of oxygen. That is at both the micro level of atoms and molecules as well as at the macro level of the Oxygenosphere. Oxygenosphere is the golden ratio (1.6) based structural arrangement of oxygen partial pressures from surface-sea water through air to human lungs (34%: 21%: 13%, with common ratio of 1.6). Global warming is threatening to disrupt this, fragile, structural arrangement. This has the potential for aerobe, including human, extinctions (historically, most of the mass biological extinctions on Earth have been, so-called, Oxygen Events). 

In August 2016, at a Library of Alexandria Lecture, I pointed out the existence of an Oxygenosphere into which humans, and logically other aerobes, are physiologically integrated. Later the same year, October, I delivered a lecture at an African Biomedical Technology conference; Abuja 2016, on Oxygenotherapy. The paper showed evidence that clearly demonstrates that most of the world’s microbial, including viral, diseases would be cured by oxygen and its compounds. And this includes, particularly, malaria, which we import oxygen compounds, like artemisinin, to treat. So, when oxygen-related compounds were being announced by Presidents Trump and Rajoelina for the treatment of Covid-19, it was kind of anticipated.

Medical scientists know these facts, significantly, but not as a generalized or preferred system. Part of the roadblock to, generally, knowing and acting on it is what Hearns said above on institutional suppression of oxygen therapy. Giant Pharmaceutical companiesfear oxygen would work so well that they would not make much money from synthetic drugs.

In a recent interview a Nigerian doctor treating Covid-19 patients at the University of Lagos Teaching Hospital, LUTH, said “…oxygen is critical in the management and survival of patients with severe cases of Covid-19…  Medical oxygen, according to experts, is a key treatment for severe pneumonia, malaria, sepsis and meningitis” (https://punch.com/covid-19-patient-used-over-60-cylinders-of-oxygen-luth/). That is to say, medical oxygen gets, usually, used when the regular medicines fail against the indicated diseases. And why not before the disease becomes severe?

Note, particularly, ‘severe pneumonia, malaria and meningitis’. Are these not some of the main diseases that trouble the tropical world, particularly Africans, the most now? These are called Orphan diseases because the controllers of world money for research would not fund it to treat poor people who cannot afford to pay to buy it. If oxygen can cure the severe forms of these diseases, what would happen to the mild ones? And why would cash-poor Africa be importing oxygen compounds as medicine from abroad, when we live in an ocean of oxygen around us? And there is the Very Important factor that microbes cannot easily develop resistance to oxygen, but easily do so to synthetic drugs! Devil is Ignorance; Ignorance is Disease; Disease is Death!

The extant, self-serving, African Berlin States might not note or act on this vital knowledge, because they were designed to work against African interests. But, African peoples; individuals and Communities, should take note to cut their health bills and death rates down. Each Community should work towards installing oxygen systems, that can be used to treat microbes, and other diseases in their hospitals and health centers henceforth. They will, appropriately, harvest death if the fail!

Because we safely, and happily, breathe very diluted form of oxygen in the air, many people don’t know that oxygen is a powerful acid. Indeed, to call something acid is to say that thing behaves like oxygen. Anybody thrown into a lake of pure oxygen, contrary to intuition that they would breathe easier, would not survive. Most microbes, including viruses like Covid-19 with soft coat, stand little chance in oxygen. So, LUTH’s Professor Wasiu Adeyemo’s comment quoted above is consistent with existing, but not widely understood or suppressed, scientific knowledge.

The question is how would oxygen work; the Mechanism oxygen action, within our free radical paradigm of Coronavirus deactivation? One might note that it is behaving like oxygen; seeking out electrons to grab, the gives Free Radicals the generic names of Oxidants. So, once oxygen enters the body it goes for electrons…one at a time. Once it picks up the first electron, it transformed into a powerful free radical called superoxide ion, O2o. This quickly picks up one more electron as well as two Hydrogen ions, 2H+, from the aqueous medium of the body. The result is the hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, which breaks down to generate free radicals. This is what Oxidation or Tissue respiration, for which we breathe-in oxygen, is about.

The more oxygen we breathe in, therefore, the more the amount of free radicals our body produces. Raising the level of tissue respiration, from a baseline, is called metabolic upscaling. Taking in more oxygen translates into the generation of more reactive oxygen species. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/reactive-oxygen-metabolite). The very good advantage of metabolic upscaling is that it takes place in the mitochondrion; inside the cells’ engine room. From the mitochondrion it moves out to other parts of the cells. Any coronavirus the free radicals meet inside the cell is in trouble as they will, quickly, get killed.  

If the oxygen given to patients had traces of ozone or nitric oxide, they would heal even faster (free radicals break neighboring molecules into more radicals in a chain reaction). This is one reason Azithromycin is very effective in oxygen-rich lungs. And if the patients were put inside high-pressure; hyperbaric oxygen chambers, they would fare even better still. Indeed, some American doctors have tried hyperbaric oxygen with, expected, good results. But they are going about it cautiously, because of the Lysenkian climate haunting current American science (https://abcnews.go.com/Health/wireStory/doctors-pressurized-oxygen-chambers-covid-fight-72101889). Something that saves lives should be a sacred endevour!

Africans should exploit the great potential of oxygen, for more efficient and cheaper health system. If not, they will keep harvesting short life expectancy and death as the Berlin States, designed by imperialists for African subjugation and exploitation, is programmed to achieve.  The peoples of the African Berlin States creators, on the other hand, live in caring and life-securing Westphalia States at Africa’s expense.

TRY OXYGEN, AMERICA!

Recently there was news of the pathetic struggle, between desperate Covid-91 patients, for tanks of scarce oxygen in South African Hospitals (https://www.thetimes.co.uk/article/coronavirus-patients-fight-over-oxygen-as-supplies-in-hospitals-falls-17pmkk8mh). One would wonder why patients of this serious sickness, as Covid-19, would be battling each other for ordinary oxygen? Not until one, also, learns what Cable News Nework, CNN, learnt.

A CNN correspondent reported from Cape Town, South Africa, that the main medicine for Covid-19 treatment, at the hospital he was reporting from, was oxygen. The CNN report was titled “Coronavirus in Cape Town: Africa’s battle against Covid-19 will be won or lost in high density areas” (https://amp.cnn.com/cnn/2020/07/06/africa/western-cape-south-africa-coronaviru-epicenter-intl/index.html. That is the basis of the literal, otherwise undisciplined, struggle for oxygen between patients. It was struggle for scare medicine on which each patient’s life depended. The report is saying Africa’s struggle against Covid-19 will be won or lost around oxygen. Is Africa listening?

South Africa was, already, applying on a mass scale with success what Nigeria had applied at a limited scale with success…oxygen as the main Covid-19 medicine. Well documented data, as reported in my 2016 Oxygenotherapy lecture, said it would work. The problem South Africa has now is the lack of capacity to generate, store and administer enough oxygen as the coronavirus cases escalate geometrically.

The United States, sensing the hard-pressed demand for oxygen, and potential social crisis, stepped in to help. They are supporting South Africa to developed additional oxygen generation and delivery capacity (https://za.usembassy.gov/press-release-the-united-states-provides-oxygen-support-to-south-africa/). Africa should start now to master and build her own Oxygenotherapy infrastructure to deal Covid-19 and later ones.

It is pleasant, and instructive, that the two major African focus (Covid-organics and Oxygen) for the management of Covid-19, as reported by Time Magazine earlier (“Unproven Herbal Cure for Coronavirus is a Hit in Africa”; https://time.com/5840148/coronavirus-cure-covid-organic-madagascar/), and later by CNN as indicated above are oxygen based solutions. And they, both, work! That is some fact for Africans to ponder.

COVID-19 REPORTAGE AND WORLD PRESS

Here, we pause and note the factor of poor press reportage on science aspects of Covid-19. The press is the glue that should hold the minds of the modern Community together. The press; as mass-informer and mass-educator, to succeed in its mission, should be much better educated and dispassionate than the average citizen. Science correspondents should be interdisciplinary and continuous education scientists. These qualities do not reflect adequately on Covid-19 reportage.

The press failed to see through the American President’s presentation style, and recognize the valid science behind his treatment suggestions. This they would, in turn, covey efficiently to desperate Americans and the world. By not doing that they contributed to the ensuing confusion. They shaded light instead of shining light on Covid-19 and its management.

Reportage on developing countries at times appeared, stereotypically, prejudiced. Note Radio France International, RFI, use of ‘quackery’ to describe Covid-organics formulated by Madagascar Institute for Applied Research it knows well was established by imperial France. Not many will know that RFI was, in fact, broadcasting propaganda to promote French neocolonial interest. Note, also, the use of ‘fake-toxic’ by Time magazine to describe Chlorine Dioxide use in Bolivia when, scientifically, toxic in excess concentration can apply, but fake does not. The 21st century world has outgrown this types of skewed, self-serving, journalism!

THE TROUBLESOME CASE OF COVID-19 VACCINES

When, in 1721 Boston, an African first introduced inoculation/vaccination, on the records, to the Americas, it created social commotion. The idea of using a contagion to prevent a contagion was so counter-intuitive that the colonial settlers in Boston, led by their physician and priest elites, rioted. They sought to catch and hang the hiding doctor involved  (1721 Boston Smallpox outbreak; https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/1721_Boston_smallpox_outbreak).

Rev Cotton Mather and Physician Zabdiel Boylston were taught the technology by the African freedman Onesimus.  Because Rev Mather knew Onesimus, his former slave, enough to trust him when he told him that    inoculation was an ancient African practicefor immunization against contagions and believed him. Inoculation/vaccination, of various kinds, is so common in traditional African society that, like Onesimus showed, certain kinds did not need specialist doctors to execute. Mather, then, brought Harvard physician, Boylston, to experiment. The resistance to the strange, African, medical procedure led to the riot by Bostonians (Interestingly, a 2016 Boston Magazine poll voted Onesimus as one of the greatest Bostonians ever). Those who agreed to be inoculated were mostly saved, while many of the majority that resisted inoculation died.

The remarkable result, through American influence, changed the course of Public Health practice in the world. Before the United States was created, therefore, Africa had introduced inoculation to America. It is ironic that today, some people from America and the Western world are using inoculation/vaccination to make ‘garagara’ to Africa. Some people talk, casually, of Africans as the ‘natural’ guinea-pig for vaccines and bio-weapons tests.  Africans are, naturally, wary of vaccine-mongers. In any case, the news that “Covid-19 Antibodies Can Disappear After 2-3 Months, Study Shows” does not give any wise people the advice to rely on vaccines alone, for overcoming this, unusually virulent, Covid-19 pandemic. Other complementary measures are called for (https://www.mescape.com/viewarticle/932671).

Not when a people, like Africans, are so despoiled and impoverished that they may not afford the vaccines. Not when there has emerged rich countries’ ‘Vaccine Cartels’ with the collapse of globalism (‘Vaccine Nationalism’; Is it Every Country to Itself?’ Medscape- July 29, 2020; https://time.com/5871532/vaccine-nationalism-coronavirus-pandemic/). And, not when the World Health Organization, WHO, warns “While hopes for a vaccine are strong, there may never be a ‘silver bullet’ for the Coronavirus…” (https://www.bbc.com/news/live/world-53634115). It is prudent to have an eye for alternative therapies under the unpredictable circumstance. The best option under any circumstance is to have options.

So, Africa is, more realistically, hurrying along the oxygen road away from Covid-19, alongside looking for vaccines. But, America has much greater capacity to provide oxygen; in different forms, formulations and shortest time to her dynamic but, suffering and dying people. If only She is so minded! And, if America does the world would follow. And Africa, following the 1721 tradition, says to Onesimus’ descendants and their country-folks: Try oxygen, America!

HUMAN BODY AS SYSTEM, OXYGEN AND COVID-19

First thing last! That is the truth with respect to our level of understanding of the human body at this time of Covid-19. How to bring the human body together with oxygen to generate the energy to save human lives from Covid-19 is the central question of the current pandemic crisis. We take our understanding of the human body for granted. We should not! We hardly understand it.

In a 2019 lecture, I started with a simplifying, guiding, definition of the human body, as a hyper-complex energy using system. Some people may think of that as superfluous. It is not! What exists on the subject are, more or less, anecdotes? One who hunts an unknown animal would never know the right weapon to use. That is the world’s main challenge with Covid-19. The body we seek to defend is not well known to us.

Many know the human body is a system that runs on energy proportionate to the oxygen it takes in. What is not well known is that oxygen intake, for people of the same age for instance, is not in simple proportion. It is, roughly, in square proportion to the body weight. As we put on weight, oxygen need rises dramatically. Hypertension, etc., are the body’s desperate attempt to compensate for un-natural weight increases.

Science shows that men; who are on average about 10% percent heavier than women, need about 20% more oxygen, etc. So, Covid-19 that blocks oxygen flow should hit men who need more oxygen harder. That’s just what it does. Obese and aged people; who put on weight not intended for their natural bone-frame and blood capacity suffer. They would be seen, by Nature, as functional anemics and hit hard by Covid-19. These ought to, realistically, be blood-transfused as part of their Covid-19 treatment, as regular anemics would.  

If people are asked to shelter-in-place; but don’t put on weight and instead lose, that is good advice for Covid-19 survival. When people are advised to eat certain things, and in right amounts, to keep their oxygen airways open, it is wise. When people are advised to practice breathing exercises to strengthen their oxygen intake capacity; instead of sitting and watching television and fattening, it is wise. When some employ inhalers that open oxygen airways, that is wise.  When people are asked to drink warm fluid and stay warm, those are wise body energy conservation measures.

These are the kinds of factors that must be taken into consideration in the design of any Efficient Covid-19 Management Protocol. Anything that reduces the communal load of coronavirus (flattening the curve they call it) goes a long way to slow down the spread of covid-19. In complex system, as human society, arithmetic events have geometric impacts. That is why, on average, one person infected infects nearly three other people. So, logically, one person saved from infection saves very many others. These thoughts should guide our efficient actions against Covid-19.

SUMMARY

From the available evidence this paper makes the simplifying, and organizing, assumption that the common Medicinal essence of the American and Madagascar Presidents’ treatment suggestions are Free radicals. Particularly Reactive Oxygen Species,ROS. The main implicated Mechanism of action in Covid-19 treatments is inferred, therefore, to be viral deactivation through Free radical oxidation of the viral coat.

From the medicinal reactive oxygen species surmise it was deduced that other ROS sources would be, equally, valid for Covid-19 treatment. Of those identified, it was discovered that one; Chlorine dioxide, is in public use in Bolivia (as well as illicit, underground, use elsewhere); a second, Ozone, is being advocated for use and the third, Nitric oxide, is scientifically, established as potent to use, at least as very good adjuvant. The particular report that “Nitric oxide dosed in short bursts at high concentrations may protect against Covid-19” (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1089860320301610) strongly recommends Nitric oxide as the prime prophylactic for the World Health Workers against Covid-19.

The differences between males and females, with different genomes and proteomes, in adaptive immunity should be better investigated. It is apparent that the limited proteome of males limits their ability to form the varieties of antibodies required for effective adaptive immune defense of Covid-19. Rather males and younger people seem to rely more on innate immune defense with reactive oxygen species (ROS). This known difference, and associated differences in morbidity and mortality, strongly recommend different protocols for treating males and females, as well as young and old people suffering from Covid-19.

*This paper is dedicated to the memory of Professor Norah E Zink; great American internationalist and philanthropist, who paid for my great American education.

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